The Embalmer’s Book of Recipes

The Embalmer’s Book of Recipes

ISBN 9781503036918
Littoralis Press/Amazon CreateSpace, p/b, £9.95 p/b
Published 2015 (2nd edition)

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NOTE: This second edition is available as paperback and Kindle versions through Amazon, and as ePub versions through Kobo etc

Ruth pulls the old man’s bag open and stares “into the cat’s unblinking eyes. His back was arched, his ginger hair bristled around his neck, and his legs, fixed firmly to the stand, were stiff and straight. Every part of his body signalled, ‘Keep off!’ ” And Ruth (“the lady with the sky in her hair”) gives up nursing to become a taxidermist.

Lisa poses with fellow mathematicians by the patterned brick ‘masterpieces’ and she imagines the picture the camera will preserve: “Dr Lisa Wallace with her long blonde hair, dome-headed, an achondroplasic, small and imperfectly formed, against a backdrop of miniaturised perfection.”

Madeleine, widowed sheep-farmer in the Lake District, realises that “hiding, and hidden away, she had wasted her married life because she hadn’t known she had the strength to resist. But she knew now ...”

Friendship, memories, objects: how do we preserve the past? And how do we deal with the hand that life has dealt us? For the three very different women, whose lives become intertwined, these stark questions have been the undercurrent of their lives – but, within the Cumbrian landscape, they learn to deal with them with warmth and humour .

“Where was the truth? Madeleine asked the African violet on the window-sill. She was no longer sure. The vile dog Bob had been dead for years but he would have lied in any case, had he been able. ..”

Thinking about this story led to many fascinating lines of research – visiting exhibitions, museums, galleries and work-places in the Netherlands and the UK, and talking to many kind and generous people, who were often ‘expert practitioners’ in their subjects.

Throughout the writing, several postcards and print-outs of images relevant to the novel lay on my desk – and some of them are so extraordinary and beautiful, or disturbing and thought-provoking, that I wanted to make them available to readers.

I am extremely grateful to the organisations and individuals who have so generously allowed me to use these images on this website. Where stated the Copyright remains theirs.

Comments and reviews

An intriguing novel in a haunting setting, rich in texture, humorous and concerned, raising important questions about science and our relation to the natural world, to the individuals we know and to the communities we live in. A lovely book. – Jenny Uglow

An exhilarating and compelling read. A powerful and haunting story of genetic difference, interwoven with maths, taxidermy, and the tragedy of foot and mouth disease. – Professor Sir John Sulston, Nobel Laureate

A many-faceted book ... The account of the dreadful days of foot-and-mouth disease in the last epidemic is agonising and the Cumbrian accent is perfect. – Jane Gardam

A charming, intelligent and engrossing book, with enough dark heart to drag it away from the domain of standard female fiction fare and into much more engaging territory. I found myself drawn in by the delicate prose and fascinating descriptions … an engrossing and enjoyable read. – Kat Arney, LabLit Read the full review

A rich, absorbing, intriguing novel ... All of (the characters) felt like real people, whom I would want to know. And they were dealing with authentic issues; from everyday problems like relationships and family rivalry to the impact of foot-and-mouth on the local Cumbrian community. ... An absorbing, clever writer .... – Mary Zacaroli, Oxford Times Read the full review

Ann Lingard skilfully weaves a handful of lives together ... This engrossing and unusual tale is a window on the soul... and highlights something no embalmer can preserve: what it means to be an ordinary human being. – Michael Brooks, New Scientist

The anatomists

Dr Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731) – anatomist, embalmer, man-midwife and praelector of the Amsterdam Surgeon’s Guild, botanist with an interest in insects ...

The Surgeon’s Guild was housed in De Waag in Amsterdam. I was very fortunate to be able to see the painted heraldic shields of the surgeons, including the central shield for Frederik Ruysch himself, inside the roof of the restored Theatrum Anatomicum - because my good friend and former colleague, Dr Wil van der Knaap, was able to gain entrance for the two of us. (We went on to see the ’anatomy lesson’ paintings and the Museum Vrolik, and then to Leiden to the Anatomy Theatre and the Boerhaave Museum)

Wil van der Knaap outside De Waag

Ruysch sometimes referred to himself as a konstenaar, or artist, and his Wunderkammer -- of preserved plants and animals and human foetuses, dried, embalmed or fixed in alcohol, and his moralistic preparations and Tableaux of skeletons that were symbols of vanitas mundi -- was visited by many high-ranking academics and others, including Peter the Great (who eventually bought the collection).

Cornelius Huyberts’ engravings of the Tableaux are preserved in the volumes of Ruysch’s Opera Omnia, the Thesauri, which I was able to examine in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Since then, photographs of all the pages of the Thesauri have become available on the website of the Bibliothèque Interuniversitaire de Médécine.

Tableau I, Thesaurus VIII
© BIUM Paris: by courtesy of the Bibliothèque Interuniversitaire de Médecine (Paris)

This Tableau is one of several showing Ruysch’s artistry in preparing tissues such as blood vessels and the mesenteric tissues from around the gut, and arranging them to represent handkerchiefs and trees and – more morbidly here – an opened tomb or sepulchre created from a preserved uterus, containing a foetus with a ‘crown of natural flowers’

Tableau I, Thesaurus VIII explanations
© BIUM Paris: by courtesy of the Bibliothèque Interuniversitaire de Médecine (Paris)

The Scot William Hunter (1716-1783) was, like Ruysch, an anatomist, embalmer and man-midwife, and was also President of the Royal College of Surgeons in England. Remnants of his large anatomical museum – including the plaster casts of gravid uteri, and the bottles of human eyes mentioned in the essay Making Eyes - are now held at Glasgow University’s Hunterian Museum. His anatomy dissections and lectures, and his embalming methods that allowed long-term dissections of cadavers, were famous and led to many ground-breaking discoveries. It’s worth noting that his lectures and demonstrations to the Royal Academy of Arts on the importance of scientific observation and accurate interpretation are still very relevant to the work of writers and artists today!
The use of écorchés (flayed preserved corpses) to demonstrate the body’s musculature is well-recorded and discussed elsewhere, but Hunter – again like Ruysch – sometimes arranged his specimens in ‘artistic’ poses. The body of a hanged smuggler was fixed in the position of a dying Roman soldier before rigor mortis set in: the écorché of ‘Smugglerius’ was used as a teaching aid and subsequently immortalised as a plaster cast by William Pink, still held in the collection of the Royal Academy.

William Hunter’s younger brother John (1729-1793) was also a surgeon and anatomist and a naturalist, who accumulated his own large collection of animals and humans, both dead and alive, in his own museum. A large part of the collection remains in the Hunterian Museum at the Royal College of Surgeons in London.

Portrait of John Hunter, miniature copy by Henry Bone RA after Joshua Reynolds, 1798. (With grateful thanks to The Hunterian Museum at The Royal College of Surgeons of England for permission to reproduce this image)

In the background are the bones of the feet and lower legs of Charles Byrne, ‘the Giant O’Brien’ (died 1783), as recounted in the essay Copper Kettles by taxidermist Ruth Kowslowski in the novel: “Perhaps finally he has been able to smile at the thought that his story as well as his bones (and a portrait of his feet!) are still preserved and admired nearly 250 years later.”  There is a fascinating video about Charles Byrne's skeleton and genetic studies on acromegaly (a form of giantism) in the online version of the article "Should the skeleton of the Irish Giant O'Brien be buried at sea?" by Len Doyal and Thomas Muinzer.

As for Ruysch’s children, Rachel Ruysch was not only adept at making lacy sleeves for embalmed babies, but became a highly-respected artist, preserving the images of flowers and insects and reptiles in the rich colours and deep textures of her still-life paintings. You can find portraits of Rachel Ruysch on the internet – and one of her oil-paintings is held at Glasgow’s Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum.

Rachel Ruysch: An arrangement of flowers by a tree-trunk
My thanks to ‘Culture & Sport Glasgow (Museums)’ for permission to use this image

Patterns

What was the significance of the post-cards on the Café Waag table? And what was so special about the brick patterns inside De Waag? “(Lisa) hastily pushed the postcards into a pile. They were all aerial views of tulip-fields; some were striped like the rough canvas of a deck-chair, narrow bands of red, orange, green and yellow; in others, the patterns were more intricate arrangements of rectangles and trapezoids, bounded by the dark curving ribbons of canals.” There is a longer extract from this chapter under Chromosome 4 of Ken MacLeod's Human Genre Project.

Frans wrote to me that this postcard (which I bought in 2001) is “the best selling tulip image card in Holland. The publisher and I were astonished about this. We thought before that it would do well, but definitely not that it would become the best selling of all tulip fields”. I am delighted to be able to reproduce it here!

The answer to the questions is that Lisa, Stefan, Kees and their colleagues - mathematicians, theoretical physicists, astronomers - were in Amsterdam for a conference on patterning and quasicrystal structure – and like crystallographers and the artist Escher before them, were working on the practice and theory of how shapes and images could be fit together to fill two- and three- and multi-dimensional space

To find out more about the theory and increasingly the reality of quasicrystals, read and enjoy these articles by Dr Uwe Grimm, who is thanked – along with Professor Ian Stewart – in the Acknowledgments section of The Embalmer’s Book. Uwe helped me (and subsequently the audience at our Café Scientifique in Cockermouth, to try to get to grips with the concept of the quasi-periodicity of repeating patterns in crystals: Forbidden Beauty and What is Aperiodic Order?

‘Making eyes’

As taxidermist Ruth explains “ ... It’s so important to get the eyes and the eyelids right ... the face is everything, and it’s far too easy to get the expression wrong.

Detail from ‘Dark Night of the Soul’, 1999; polychromed wood and gold leaf. My thanks to Ana Maria Pacheco and Pratt Contemporary Arts for permission to use this image

“ ... the eyes ... look slyly, laughingly, wryly, openly, in sadness and in pain, from their painted wooden faces. In Dark Night of the Soul (1999) ... the eyes of the carved watchers reveal their despair and make us weep.” (from Ruth Kowslowski’s essay ‘Making Eyes’)

Glass-makers Leopold and Rudolf Blaschka are probably best-known for their series of exquisite and scientifically-detailed flowers in the Ware Collection at the Harvard Museum of Natural History, Boston, USA. The Blaschkas also made glass eyes.

White spheres lie on cotton-wool in the compartments of a flat wooden box: blue, brown or green circles, dark centres - pot-boilers, money-spinners: artificial human eyes. On a workbench there are small bottles, pinboxes and wooden trays containing different body-parts: glass tentacles of different shapes and colours, sponge spicules, tiny shells. ‘Mix ’n match’ invertebrates amongst the powdered glass and pigments.” (from Ruth Kowslowski’s essay ‘Making Eyes’)

Philip Henry Gosse exclaimed about the beauty of the multi-faceted eye of the dragon-fly. Insects have ‘compound eyes’, made up of many individual units each with a lens and light-sensitive cells that form an image. The surface of some compound eyes – like those of the fruit-fly, Drosophila - looks a bit like the surface of a raspberry, each separate unit bulging slightly outwards.

The structure and image-forming method of insect eyes could not be more different from that of vertebrate eyes, or even eyes of the squid and octopus.

Yet in the mid-1990s, Walter Gehring and his colleagues performed a series of what turned out to be ground-breaking experiments in the field of developmental genetics – they showed that the gene pax6 which initiates the early stages of eye-formation in the mouse could also initiate eye-formation in Drosophila. Not a mouse eye – but a fly eye.

If the mouse gene was inserted into fly cells that would normally form a leg or antenna – a fly eye grew instead!

See Figures 3 and 5 of Induction of Ectopic Eyes by Targeted Expression of the eyeless Gene in Drosophila

As Ruth writes in her essay ‘Making Eyes’: “We know now that Evolution is a conservationist and throws very little away: ‘You want an image-forming retina? There’s a bit of photosensitive pigment kicking around somewhere. A bit of this and a little bit of that, let’s try them in this order instead ...’ The ingredients are mixed in a different sequence, to a different recipe.”

Taxidermy

© NTPL/Andreas von Einsiedel.
My thanks to the National Trust and their Photo Library for permission to use this image

This photo of William Hart’s fighting squirrels held in the collection at Castle Ward was in a National Trust magazine in 2002 – and was a major stimulus in making me want to write about a taxidermist. The Victorians were very fond of these anthropomorphised specimens, and artist Polly Morgan has taken this trend to new, exciting levels. In my novel, Ruth mentions Walter Potter’s ‘Kittens’ Tea-Party’ and although all of Potter’s works are now held in private collections, there are photos of several of his kitten tableaux at the Booth Museum, Brighton – where Booth’s own taxidermal preparations are on display.

To learn more about how taxidermists work, I visited and watched George Jamieson at Cramond and Colin Scott in Hawick. This very good BBC video , A Taxidermist's Tale, shows George (who also taught Polly Morgan) at work.

The 2001 Foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Cumbria

Madeleine Tregwithen, one of the main characters in The Embalmer’s Book, had her sheep flock ‘culled out’ in 2001; her neighbour Daniel’s pedigree herd of cattle was subsequently infected and killed.

So much has been written and photographed about this terrible time, so many stories have been recorded in print and audio and on film. Mathematical analyses and future predictions of the spread of disease continue, based on the very large data set that was gathered at the time.

Nick May’s exhibition of photographs, Till the cows come home, continues to haunt me.

‘Dodds’ parlour’.
© Nick May. I am indebted to Nick for giving me permission to use this photograph

Note:  Herdwick semen and embryos were collected during FMD and stored in the Sheep Trust's gene bank, and have now, eleven years on, been used successfully to breed new lambs: see my article, 'Moving On' on page 22 of Firecrane#2

Achondroplasia

The character Lisa Wallace, mathematician at the University of Liverpool, is an achondroplasic.

Tom Shakespeare, a friend and former colleague, with whom I worked for two years on the Talking Science in Cumbria project, is himself achondroplasic – and he introduced me to Jo Hookway and Margaret Milne, both of whom were amazingly generous (and humorous) in helping me to try to understand what it is like to be a female ‘person of restricted growth’. Sandy Marshall, formerly of the Restricted Growth Association also gave me lots of helpful background information.

There is more about achondroplasia - about a 19th-century skeleton in the Surgeons' Hall Museum, Edinburgh, and about James Jack who was a technician there, in the stories I wrote during my Visiting Fellowship at the Genomics Forum. 'Stories about dwarves', in addition to containing one of Joyce Gunn Cairns' delicate drawings, also has an extract from the novel about 'Lisa'.

Tom Shakespeare and Professor John Burn of Newcastle University made these ‘talking heads’ videos about achondroplasia.

The videos are reproduced with kind permission from Newcastle University - ©1998 Copyright Newcastle University; All Rights Reserved.
My thanks to Tom and John, and the University audio-visual service.

You should have been terminated!’ John Burn tells Tom ....